Артикул:00003316 Автор:Gutbord Max Издательство:Инфотропик Медиа (все книги издательства)
ISBN:978-5-9998-0004-6 Год:2010 Формат:60x84/16 (~143х205 мм) Переплет:Мягкая обложка Вес:170 г Страниц:160
Over the past two decades, the international community has developed a regulatory framework for reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which have been recognized as the main culprit behind climate change.
This framework, codified in the Kyoto Protocol, employs cap-and-trade as the primary platform for achieving cost-effective emission reductions.
The carbon markets play a central role in this process. Yet the carbon markets extend well beyond Kyoto to other regional and domestic programs aimed at curbing emissions.
One of the main functions that Kyoto and these other markets play is that of facilitating emissions reductions in developing countries and in transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe. The potential for slashing greenhouse gas emissions in these countries is immense, and still largely unrealized. To successfully meet this potential, it is important to navigate among the various systems of climate regulation in place today, to understand how they work, and to recognize and manage the various levels of risk involved in developing emission reduction projects. Содержание
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
CHAPTER 1 - Rise of the carbon markets A. Introduction B. General carbon market characteristics I. The cap II. The trade C. Regional carbon markets I. The Chicago Climate Exchange II. New South Wales, GGAS, RGGI, CCAR, and WCI D. National schemes E. Multilateral agreements I. The UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol II. The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme F. Voluntary trading - beyond cap-and-trade I. Introduction to voluntary trading II. The VER market G. Conclusion
CHAPTER 2 - International climate legislation A. Introduction B. The science I. Significance of science in climate policy II. Early beginnings III. Linking science to policy C. The UNFCCC I. The UNFCCC's guiding principles II. Substantive provisions III. Structure and procedure D. The Kyoto Protocol I. Development of the Kyoto Protocol II. Legal requirements E. Conclusion
CHAPTER 3 - Practical considerations for carrying out JI projects A. Introduction B. JI project participants C. Domestic laws and policy I. Domestic legal issues II. The Designated Focal Point III. Legal nature and scope of host country letter of approval D. Structuring the project I. Establishing legal ownership of ERUs II. Financing JI projects E. JI in Russia - a test case I. Overview II. Implementing JI in Russia III. Implementing GIS F. Conclusion
CHAPTER 4 - Reaching a post-2012 agreement A Introduction B. Legal and procedural framework I. Legal framework for establishing new commitments under the UNFCCC II. Legal framework for establishing new commitments under Kyoto C. Main issues in post-2012 negotiations I. Overview of the main issues II. Structural issues in setting the cap III. Flexibility mechanisms D. Progress in the negotiations I. Main negotiating blocs II. COP-11/CMP-l - Montreal III. The Bali Action Plan IV. Poznari negotiations E. The road ahead