Модель-копия из бумаги кораблей Taszkient и Mikojan

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  • Артикул:00809798
  • Город: Польша
  • Год: 2002
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By the end of XlXth century a new type of ship appeared - an icebreaker. Special shape of their hull together with powerful engines make possible for those ships to jump on ice and crush it with their weight.

Fleets of icebreakers are kept by countries where shipping lines are often covered with ice: USA, Canada, Japan, Finlandi, Sweden. However the biggest naumber of icebreakers steam under Russian colours, as the majority of Russian harbours are closed by ice during the winter. Moreover, the Russia has important shipping routes in the Arctic, where ice conditions are particularly heavy.

By the end of twenties rich deposits of oil, coal, metals and other minerals were discovered in the Northern Siberia. Mining them was one problem, but transporting the result to more civilized places proved to be equally difficult. The only solution was to get there from the sea - but the sea was covered by ice for most of time. In 1934 it was decided to built a whole
flotilla for the Arctic, comprising six icebreakers (four steam driven, described below, and two diesel-electric, not completed before 1941) and a number of icebreaking cargo ships.
In July 1934 the People's Ministry of Heavy Industry was ordered to built four large steam icebreakers following the design of highly successful Krasin (ex Svjatogor, built 1917 in UK by Armstrong, 10 000 HP). Two of the class - losif Stalin (later renamed Sibir) and Vyacheslav Molotov (later Admiral Makarov)-were built in Leningrad, while other two - Lazar Kaganovich (later Admiral Lazarev) and Anastas Mikojan - in Nikolaev on the Black Sea. The ships were divided into ten watertight compartments, while all the openings in bulkheads could be closed remotely, from the bridge. The shell plating in the fore part of the ship reached thickness of 42 mm and the frames were spaced more closely than on ordinary ships. It was planned to fit the new icebreakers with three aircraft each
Just two of the class were completed before the Soviet-German war broke out: Stalin and Kaganovich. The Molotov was completed only in 1946, while the service history of Mikojan is given below. Icebreaker ANASTAS MIKOJAN

The Mikojan was laid down in November 1935 in the A. Marti Yard in Nikolaev. She was launched in 1938 as Otto Ju. Shmidt, in honour of a Soviet Arctic explorer, but in 1939 the name was changed to Anastas Mikojan. She was nearing completion in 1941 and on 28 June the ship - already running acceptance trials - was taken over by the Soviet Navy.
As it was decided to convert her to an auxilliary cruiser the Mikojan returned to the shipyard to be armed with 3 (according to other sources: 5) 130 mm guns, 4- 76,2 mm AA guns and 4 MGs 7,62 mm. She was commissioned into naval service by the end of August 1941. She shelled the advancing German troops off Odessa and on 22 September she participated in landing off Grigorevka.

In November 1951 the Mikojan was disarmed in Poti and transferred to civilian authorities. On 25 November she left Batumi together with tankers Sakhalin, Tuapse and Varlaam Avanesov, escorted by destroyers Tashkent, Sposobnyj and Soobrazitelnyj. On 30 November the ships entered the Mediterranean and headed towards Cyprus. The Mikojan was attacked by by Italian MTBs off Castelorizzo, but only the superstructures were damaged. After temporary repairs she went to Seattle via the Suez Canal, Atlantic and via Panama Canal. In Seattle she was repaired and armed with US guns: 3-76 mm and 10-20 mm AA guns were augmented by 8 MGs.

On 9 August 1942 Mikojan arrived in the Soviet Far East and joined three destroyers {Baku, Razumnyj and Rastoropnyj) and 19 transports that formed the EON-18 convoy bound west for the Soviet Arctic Fleet. Later they were joined by other Soviet large icebrakers: Kaganovich, Stalin and Krasin. In mid-October the ships arrived in ice-free waters and Mikojan turned east. Later she operated on the Kara Sea and only in mid-November was sent to Severodvinsk. Together with destroyer Urickij, icebreaker Lenin and HMS Harrier and Gleaner she escorted a convoy. On 26 November 1942 she was mined off Kanin Nos. The stern part of the ship was wrecked and one of steam engines was put out of service together with the steering gear. However the propellers remaind intact and the Mikojan was towed to Iokanga by salvage vessel Shkval.

After the refit, Mikojan took part in JW.53 convoy operation in February 1943.
After the war the Mikojan was disarmed; later a helicopter landing pad was erected on her stern. She was deleted by the end sixties, together with her sister ships.

In the early thirties the Soviet Navy built a serie of large destroyer leaders - the "Leningrad" class. Already upon completion they proved Obsolescent. Thus when next leaders were contemplated it was decided to construct them in more experienced Italian yard.
hi 1936 the Soviet Navy ordered a large destroyer in Odero-Terni-Orlando yard in Livomo. She was laid down on 11 January 1937 and launched as 'Tashkent" on 28 November 1938. On 18 April 1939 she was taken over by Soviet Navy. She was to serve on the Baltic, but due to worsening international situation she went to the Black Sea in the beginning of May 1939.

The "Tashkent" was completed without the planned armament of 3 twin 130 mm guns. However the mountings were not ready on time and she was fitted with three single 130 mm guns. On 22 October she officially joined the Soviet Bleck Sea Fleet, but she remained in the yard all the time. The twin 130 mm were nstalled only in the beginnings of June 1941.

According to the contract two further ships of the same class were to be built in the Soviet yards, with Italian support. Their construction was eventually cancelled, but the Soviets decided to built 14 ships of "Improved Tashkent" design. None was completed, although two ("Kiev" and "Erevan") were launched and evacuated to Poti in August 1941.
When the Germans attacked USSR on 22 June 1941 the "Tashkent" was still in the shipyard. She went to Sevastopol only after the most important #usterki were #usunite in mid-July. In Sevastopol she fired at the enemy for the first time, when she opened fire at the attacking German aircraft. In August 'Tashkent" went to Odessa.

While in Odessa 'Tashkent" shelled German positions on 22 and 23 August and later escorted a convoy from Sevastopol to Odessa. On 29 August she destroyed a German battery blocking the entrance to Odessa. On the next day, when shelling German positions, the 'Tashkent" was attacked and damaged by German aircraft. On 31 August she went to Sevastopol. The repairs lasted until last days of October 1941. During that refit she received additional twin 76 mm AA mounting, fitted on the stern.

When the Sevastopol was cut off by advancing German armies the ships stationed there were evacuated to the harbours on the east coast of the Black Sea. During the night of 31 October/1 November 194# the "Tashkent" together with battleship "Parizhskaja Kommuna", cruiser "Molotov" and smaller ships went to Pott and later to Batumi. Then 'Tashkent" began the supply runs Sevastopol.

First of those missions took place on 21 November, when 'Tashkent" brought there 7001 of supplies; on the way back she took 400 wounded. On 25 November 'Tashkent" together with destroyers "Soobrazitelnyj" and "Sposobnyj" escorted three merchant ships and icebreaker "Mikojan". Then she returned to Sevastopol runs. According to needs she used to shell enemy positions. In January 1942 she participated in offensive landing operations off Evpatoria and escorted a convoy to Sevastopol. In March she screened battleship "Parizhskaja Kommuna" and

togehther with her (and later with destroyer "Kharkov") she shelled German positions off Sevastopol.

In the night of 9/10 June 1942 'Tashkent" was attacked by Italian MTBs. One of them - the "MTSM-216" - clamed later to hit 'Tashkent". The Soviets disagree, but in mid-June 'Tashkent" underwent short refit.
Since 22 June 'Tashkent" resumed the supply runs, augmented by destroyer "Bezuprechnyj".

On 26 June the latter was destroyed by German aircraft, but "Tashkent" managed to reach Sevastopol undamaged. She after she left Sevastopol (with ca. 2300 wounded, women and children on board) she was attacked by German dive-bombers. They did not hit the ship, but near misses damaged the rudder and caused some 10001 of water to enter the hull. When
finally she arrived in the Cemes Bay she already shipped some 17001 of water.

It was planned to carry out the repairs in Poti. However on 1 July, during the German air attack on Novorossij sk, the 'Tashkent" was hit by two bombs. The repairs proved impossible as the ship's structure was damaged. Therefore only the guns were landed togehther with more valuable equipment.

When the Germans took Novorossijsk in September 1942, they began to break the wreck. Only after the city was taken over by the Red Army in #1943, the 'Tashkent" was refloated on 30 August 1944. After the war she was towed to Nikolaev. There the breaking up was finished in 1948.

During her service 'Tashkent" covered 27 000 miles and carried some 19 300 men and 2538 t of supplies.

Количество листов: 4 х А4
Инструкция по сборке моделей на английском и на польском языке.

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